As we all know, agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy. Recently, a new development has taken place in the agricultural sector. Most farmers today are following the organic farming system. It is a method of farming which is aimed at primarily cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way that the soil is good and healthy. The crops are raised by using organic wastes such as crop, animal and farm wastes, aquatic wastes and other biological materials. It is sustainable and promotes an eco-friendly and pollution free environment.
Some of the popular organic farming techniques are:
- Natural farming: This is a production system which avoids the use of synthetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides and growth regulators. It instead relies on crop rotation, crop residues, animal manure and farm wastes. It maintains the productivity of the soil and supplies the crop with important plant nutrients.
- Mulching: In this process, natural or artificial layers of organic residues are applied on the surface of the soil. Some of the popular materials employed for mulching are coir waste, farm waste, dried leaves, dried grass, paddy straw and groundnut husk.
- Bio-fertilizer:Bio-fertilizers are important for healthy plant growth. It supplies the plant with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. They also enrich the crops with vitamins, amino acids and growth promoters.
- Vermi composting: Vermi-compost is a method of making compost with the use of earthworms which live in the soil and eat biomass. The upward and downward movement of earthworms improve the aeration of the soil. It also prevents soil erosion.
- Green manure: This is a process that refers to the drying of plants that are uprooted and stuffed into the soil to increase its quality.
The reason why organic agriculture is enforced in India is because it minimises the use of various chemicals that have hazardous effects on the crops in the field. In such cultivation, the focus is more on using natural ways to enhance the quality of the soil and cultivating crops. Organic farming is nothing but modernisation in agriculture. It is a combination of science, technology and nature. Hence, such as process of agriculture should be encouraged as it protects the planet, enhances the quality of the crop and improves the quality of the soil. Different methods of organic farming are being combined to form organic agriculture.